They call the larger demon Setebos, and the others Cheleulle. That giant also told us by signs that he had seen the demons with two horns on their heads, and long hair which hung to the feet belching forth fire from mouth and buttocks. The captain-general called those people Patagoni. They live on raw flesh and on a sweet root which they call chapae. They also ate rats without skinning them.

In that port which we called the port of Santo Julianno, we remained about five months. In order that your most illustrious Lordship may know some of them, it hap- pened that as soon as we had entered the port, the captains of the other four ships plotted treason in order that they might kill the captain-general.

The overseer of the men having been quartered, the treasurer was killed by dagger blows, for the treason was discovered. Some days after that, Gaspar de Casada, was banished with a priest in that land of Patagonia. The captain-gen- eral did not wish to have him killed, because the emperor, Don Carlo, had appointed him captain.

All the men were saved as by a miracle, not even getting wet. Two of them came to the ships after suffering great hardships, and reported the whole occurrence to us. Consequently, the captain-general sent some men with bags full of biscuits [sufficient to last] for two months. It was necessary for us to carry them the food, for daily pieces of the ship [that was wrecked] were found. The way thither was long, [being] 24 leguas, or one hundred millas, and the path was very rough and full of thorns.

The men were 4 days on the road, sleeping at night in the bushes. They found no drinking water, but only ice, which caused them the greatest hardship. They have pearls, although small ones in the middle, but could not be eaten. We erected a cross on the top of the highest summit there, as a sign in that land that it belonged to the king of Spagnia; and we called that summit Monte de Christo [i. There the ships almost per- ished because of the furious winds ; but God and the holy bodies aided them.

We stayed about two months in that river in order to supply the ships with water, wood, and fish, [the latter being] one braccio in length and more, and covered with scales.

They were very good although small. That strait is one hundred and ten leguas or millas long, and it is one-half legua broad, more or less. There it was impossible to find bottom [for anchor- ing], but [it was necessary to fasten] the moorings m on land 25 or 30 brazas away.

Had it not been for the captain-general, we would not have found that strait, for we all thought and said that it was closed on all sides. The other two ships suffered a headwind and could not double a cape m formed by the bay almost at its end, as they were trying to return to join us ; so that they thought that they would have to run aground. But on ap- proaching the end of the bay, and thinking that they were lost, they saw a small opening which did not [exceed: Seeing that it was not a sharp turn, but a strait with land, they proceeded farther, and found a bay.

We thought that they had been wrecked, first, by reason of the violent storm, and second, because two days had passed and they had hot appeared, and also because of certain [signals with] smoke made by two of their men who had been sent ashore to advise us.

When they neared us in this manner, they sud- denly discharged a number of mortars, and burst into cheers. The ship " Sancto Anthonio " would not await the " Concep- tione," because it intended to flee and return to Spagnia - which it did. The pilot of that ship was one Stefan Gomes, and he hated the captain-gen- eral exceedingly, because before that fleet was fitted out, the emperor had ordered that he be given some caravels with which to discover lands, but his Maj- esty did not give them to him because of the coming of the captain-general.

On that account he con- spired with certain Spaniards, and next night they captured the captain of their ship, a cousin "' of the captain-general, one Alvaro de Meschita, whom they wounded and put in irons, and in this condition took to Spagnia. The other giant whom we had captured was in that ship, but he died when the heat came on. The " Conceptione," as it could not follow that ship, waited for it, sailing about hither and thither. The " Sancto Anthonio " turned back at night and fled along the same [port: Finding, however, the same [port: The men returned within three days, and reported that they had seen the cape and the open sea.

We turned back to look for the two ships, but we found only the " Conceptione. We sought it in all parts of the strait, as far as that opening whence it had fled, and the captain-general sent the ship " Victoria " back to the entrance of the strait to ascertain whether the ship was there. Orders were given them, if they did not find it, to plant a banner on the summit of some small hill with a letter in an earthen pot buried in the earth near the banner, so that if the banner were seen the letter might be found, and the ship might learn the course that we were sailing.

For this was the arrangement made between us in case that we went astray one from the other. The captain-general waited for the ship with his other ship near he river of Isleo, and he had a cross set up in an islet near that river, which flowed between high mountains covered with snow and emptied into the sea near the river of Sardine.

There in that latitude, during the summer season, there is no night, or if there is any night it is but short, and so in the winter with the day. In order that your most illustrious Lordship may believe it, when we were in that strait, the nights were only three hours long, and it was then the month of October, 1 " The land on the left-hand side of that strait turned toward the southeast 1 " and was low.

We called that strait the strait of Patagonia. We ate of it for many days as we had noth- ing else. I believe that there is not a more beautiful or better strait in the world than that one.

The fish [that hunt] are of three sorts, and are one braza and more in length, and are called dorado, albicore, and bonito. When the above three kinds [of fish] find any of those flying fish, the latter immediately leap from the water and fly as long as their wings are wet- more than a cross- bow's flight.

While they are flying, the others run along back of them under the water following the shadow of the flying fish. The latter have no sooner fallen into the water than the others immediately seize and eat them. It is in fine a very amusing thing to watch. Once I made the sign of the cross, and, showing it to him, kissed it.

He immediately cried out " Setebos," and made me a sign that if I made the sign of the cross again, Setebos would enter into my body and cause it to burst.

When that giant was sick, he asked for the cross, and embracing it and kissing it many times, desired to become a Christian before his death.

We called him Paulo. When those people wish to make a fire, they rub a sharp- ened piece of wood against another piece until the fire catches in the pith of a certain tree, which is placed between those two sticks. We ate biscuit, which was no longer biscuit, but powder of biscuits swarming with worms, for they had eaten the good. It stank strongly of the urine of rats. We also ate some ox hides that covered the top of the mainyard to prevent the yard from chafing the shrouds, and which had become exceedingly hard because of the sun, rain, and wind.

Rats were sold for one-half ducado apiece, and even then we could not get them. The gums of both the lower and upper teeth of some of our men swelled, so that they could not eat under any circumstances and therefore died.

Twenty-five or thirty men fell sick [during that time], in the arms, legs, or in another place, so that but few re- mained well. However, I, by the grace of God, suffered no sickness. We sailed about four thou- sand leguas during those three months and twenty days through an open stretch in that Pacific Sea. They are two hundred leguas apart.

We found no anchorage, [but] near them saw many sharks. Daily we made runs of fifty, sixty, or sev- enty leguas at the catena or at the stern. Of a verity I believe no such voyage will ever be made [again]. When we left that strait, if we had sailed con- tinuously westward we would have circumnavigated the world without finding other land than the cape of the xi thousand Virgins.

Both of those capes lie in a latitude of exactly fifty-two degrees toward the Antarctic Pole. Many small stars clustered together are seen, which have the appearance of two clouds of mist. There is but little distance between them, and they arc somewhat dim.

In the midst of them are two large and not very luminous stars, which move only slight- ly. Those two stars are the Antarctic Pole. Our loadstone, although it moved hither and thither, al- ways pointed toward its own Arctic Pole, although it did not have so much strength as on its own side. And on that account when we were in that open expanse, the captain-general, asking all the pilots whether they were always sailing forward in the course which we had laid down on the maps, all re- plied: When we were in the midst of that open expanse, we saw a cross with five extremely bright stars straight toward the west, those stars being exactly placed with regard to one another.

The line of demarcation is thirty degrees from the meridian, and the meridian is three degrees eastward from Capo Verde. That cape with the pardon of cosmographers, for they have not seen it , is not found where it is imagined to be, but to the north in twelve degrees or there- abouts. The captain-general wished to stop at the large island and get some fresh food, but he was unable to do so because the inhabitants of that island entered the ships and stole whatever they could lay their hands on, so that we could not pro- tect ourselves.

The men were about to strike the sails so that we could go ashore, but the natives very deftly stole from us the small boat that was fas- tened to the poop of the flagship. Thereupon, the captain-general in wrath went ashore with forty armed men, who burned some forty or fifty houses together with many boats, and killed seven men.

Before we landed, some of our sick men begged us if we should kill any man or woman to bring the entrails to them, as they would recover immediately. Others who were wounded in the breast did the same, which moved us to great compassion. Those people seeing us departing fol- lowed us with more than one hundred m boats for more than one legua.

They approached the ships showing us fish, feigning that they would give them to us ; but then threw stones at us and fled. And al- though the ships were under full sail, they passed between them and the small boats [fastened astern], very adroitly in those small boats of theirs. We saw some women in their boats who were crying out and tearing their hair, for love, I believe, of those whom we had killed.

They wear small palm- leaf hats, as do the Albanians. They are as tall as we, and well built. They have no worship. They are tawny, but are born white. Their teeth are red and black, for they think that is most beautiful. The women go naked except that they wear a narrow strip of bark as thin as paper, which grows between the tree and the bark of the palm, before their privies. They are goodlooking and delicately formed, and lighter complexioned than the men ; and wear their hair which is exceedingly black, loose and hanging quite down to the ground.

They lif anoint the body and the hair with cocoanut and beneseed oil. Their houses are all built of wood covered with planks and thatched with leaves of the fig-tree [i. The rooms and the beds are all furnished with the most beautiful palm- leaf mats. They use no weapons, except a kind of a spear pointed with a fishbone at the end. Those people are poor, but ingenious and very thiev- ish, on account of which we called those three islands the islands of Ladroni [i.

At the side opposite the sail, they have a large piece of wood pointed at the top, with poles laid across it and rest- ing on the water, in order that the boats may sail more safely. The sail is made from palmleaves sewn together and is shaped like a lateen sail. For rud- ders they use a certain blade resembling a hearth shovel which have a piece of wood at the end. They can change stern and bow at will [literally: The following day, the cap- tain-general desired to land on another island which was uninhabited and lay to the right of the above- mentioned island, in order to be more secure, and to get water and have some rest.

He had two tents set up on the shore for the sick and had a sow killed for them. On Monday afternoon, March 18, we saw a boat coming toward us with nine men in it. Therefore, the captain-general ordered that no one should move or say a word without his permission. When those men reached the shore, their chief went immediately to the captain-general, giving signs of joy because of our arrival. Five of the most ornately adorned of them remained with us, while the rest went to get some others who were fishing, and so they all came.

They get wine in the following manner. That liquor is sweet but somewhat tart, and [is gathered] in canes [of bamboo] as thick as the leg and thicker. They fasten the bamboo to the tree at evening for the morning, and in the morn- ing for the evening. That palm bears a fruit, name- ly, the cocoanut, which is as large as the head or thereabouts. Its outside husk is green and thicker than two fingers.

Certain filaments are found in that husk, whence is made cord for binding together their boats. Under that husk there is a hard shell, much thicker than the shell of the walnut, which they burn and make therefrom a powder that is use- ful to them. It could be dried and made into bread. There is a clear, sweet water in the middle of that marrowy substance which is very refreshing.

When that water stands for a while after having been collected, it congeals and becomes like an apple. When the natives wish to make oil, they take that cocoanut, and allow the marrowy substance and the water to putrefy. Then they boil it and it becomes oil like butter. When they wish to make vinegar, they allow only the water to putrefy, and then place it in the sun, and a vinegar results like [that made from] white wine.

We scraped that marrowy substance and then mixed the scrapings with its own water which we strained through a cloth, and so obtained milk like goat's milk. Those palms resemble date-palms, but al- though not smooth they are less knotty than the latter.

A family of x persons can be supported on two trees, by utilizing them week about for the wine; for if they did otherwise, the trees would dry up. They last a century. They told us many things, their names and those of some of the islands that could be seen from that place. Their own island was called Zuluan and it is not very large. He had some mortars fired for them, whereat they exhibited great fear, and tried to jump out of the ship.

When they were about to retire they took their leave very gracefully and neatly, saying that they would return according to their promise. The island where we were is called Humunu ; but inasmuch as we found two springs there of the clearest water, we called it Acquada da li buoni Segnialli [i.

There are also many palms, some of them good and others bad. There are many islands in that district, and therefore we called them the archipelago of San Lazaro, as they were discovered on the Sabbath of St.

They exhibited great signs of pleasure at see- ing us. Their seignior was an old man who was painted [i. He wore two gold earrings [schione] in his ears, and the others many gold armlets on their arms and kerchiefs about their heads.

We stayed there one week, and during that time our captain went ashore daily to visit the sick, and m every morn- ing gave them cocoanut water from his own hand, which comforted them greatly.

There are people living near that island who have holes in their ears so large that they can pass their arms through them. Those people are caphri, that is to say, heathen. They go naked, with a cloth woven from the bark of a tree about their privies, except some of the chiefs who wear cotton cloth embroidered with silk at the ends by means of a needle.

They are dark, fat, and painted. On the afternoon of holy Monday, the day of our Lady, March twenty-five, while we were on the point of weighing anchor, I went to the side of the ship to fish, and putting my feet upon a yard leading down into the storeroom, they slipped, for it was rainy, and consequently I fell into the sea, so that no one saw me. When I was all but under, my left hand hap- pened to catch hold of the clew-garnet of the main- sail, which was dangling [ascosa] in the water.

I held on tightly, and began to cry out so lustily that I was rescued by the small boat. I was aided, not, I believe, indeed, through my merits, but through the mercy of that font of charity [i.

On Thursday morning, March twenty-eight, as we had seen a fire on an island the night before, we anchored near it. They immediately understood him, came alongside the ship, unwilling to enter but taking a position at some little distance.

About two hours later we saw two balanghai coming. They are large boats and are so called [by those people]. They were full of men, and their king was in the larger of them, being seated under an awning of mats. When the king came near the flagship, the slave spoke to him. The king understood him, for in those districts the kings know more languages than the other people.

He ordered some of his men to enter the ships, but he always remained in his balanghai, at some little dis- tance from the ship until his own men returned; and as soon as they returned he departed. The captain- general showed great honor to the men who entered the ship, and gave them some presents, for which the king wished before his departure to give the cap- tain a large bar m of gold and a basketful of ginger.

The latter, however, thanked the king heartily but would not accept it In the afternoon we went in the ships [and anchored] near the dwellings of the king.

Next day, holy Friday, the captain-general sent his slave, who acted as our interpreter, ashore in a small boat to ask the king if he had any food to have it carried to the ships ; m and to say that they would be well satisfied with us, for he [and his men] had come to the island as friends and not as enemies.

The captain-gen- eral gave the king a garment of red and yellow cloth made in the Turkish fashion, and a fine red cap; and to the others the king's men , to some knives and to others mirrors. The king replied that he also wished to enter the same rela- tions with the captain-general. Then the captain showed him cloth of various colors, linen, coral [ornaments], and many other articles of merchan- dise, and all the artillery, some of which he had dis- charged for him, whereat the natives were greatly frightened.

Then the captain-general had a man armed as a soldier," 6 and placed him in the midst of three men armed with swords and daggers, who struck him on all parts of the body. Thereby was the king rendered almost speechless. The captain- general told him through the slave that one of those armed men was worth one hundred of his own men.

The king answered that that was a fact. The cap- tain-general said that he had two hundred men in each ship who were armed in that manner. Lastly, he told the king that he would like, if it were pleasing to him, to send two of his men with him so that he might show them some of his things.

The king re- plied that he was agreeable, and I went in company with one of the other men. We did the same toward him" 1 as did all the others. The king took me by the hand; one of his chiefs took my companion: We sat down upon the stern of that balanghai, constantly conversing with signs. The king's men stood about us in a circle with swords, daggers, spears, and bucklers. At every mouthful, we drank a cup of wine. The wine that was left [in the cup] at any time, al- though that happened but rarely, was put into a jar by itself.

The king's cup was always kept covered and no one else drank from it but he and I. Before the king took the cup to drink, he raised his clasped hands toward the sky, and then toward me; and when he was about to drink, he extended the fist of his left hand toward me at first I thought that he was about to strike me and then drank. I did the same toward the king. They all make those signs one toward another when they drink. We ate with such ceremonies and with other signs of friendship.

I ate meat on holy Friday, for I could not help my- self. Before the supper hour I gave the king many things which I had brought. I wrote down the names of many things in their language.

When the king and the others saw me writing, and when I told them their words, they were all astonished. Two large porcelain dishes were brought in, one full of rice and the other of pork with its gravy. After a half-hour a platter of roast fish cut in pieces was brought in, and ginger freshly gathered, and wine. The king's eldest son, who was the prince, came over to us, whereupon the king told him to sit down near us, and he accordingly did so.

Then two platters were brought in one with fish and its sauce, and the other with rice , so that we might eat with the prince. My companion became intoxicated as a consequence of so much drinking and eating.

The king made us a sign that he was going to go to sleep. He left the prince with us, and we slept with the latter on a bamboo mat with pillows made of leaves. When day dawned the king came and took me by the hand, and in that manner we went to where we had had supper, in order to partake of refreshments, but the boat came to get us. Before we left, the king kissed our hands with great joy, and we his. One of his brothers, the king of another island, and three men came with us. The captain-general kept him to dine with us, and gave him many things.

His hair was exceed- ingly black y and hung to his shoulders. He had a covering of silk on his head, and wore two large golden earrings fastened in his ears. He wore a cotton cloth all embroidered with silk, which cov- ered him from the waist to the knees.

At his side hung a dagger, the haft of which was somewhat long and all of gold, and its scabbard of carved wood. He had three spots of gold on every tooth, and his teeth appeared as if bound with gold. He was tawny and painted [i. That island of his was called Butuan and Calagan. The name of the first king is Raia Colambu, and the second Raia Siaui.

Therefore the king sent us two swine that he had had killed. When the hour for mass arrived, we landed with about fifty men, without our body armor, but carry- ing our other arms, and dressed in our best clothes.

We went in march- ing order to the place consecrated, which was not far from the shore. Before the commencement of mass, the captain sprinkled the entire bodies of the two kings with musk water. The kings went forward to kiss the cross as we did, but they did not offer the sacrifice.

The ships fired all their artillery at once when the body of Christ was elevated, the signal having been given from the shore with muskets. After the conclusion of mass, some of our men took communion. Then he had a cross carried in and the nails and a crown, to which immediate reverence was made.

If any of their men were captured, they would be set free imme- diately on that sign being shown. It was necessary to set that cross on the summit of the highest moun- tain, so that on seeing it every morning, they might adore it; and if they did that, neither thunder, light- ning, nor storms would harm them in the least. The captain-general also had them asked whether they were Moros or heathen, or what was their belief. They replied that they worshiped nothing, but that they raised their clasped hands and their face to the sky; and that they called their god " Abba.

The interpreter asked the king why there was so little to eat there. The lat- ter replied that he did not live in that place except when he went hunting and to see his brother, but that he lived in another island where all his family were.

The captain-general had him asked to de- clare whether he had any enemies, so that he might go with his ships to destroy them and to render them obedient to him. The captain told him that if God would again allow him to return to those districts, he would bring so many men that he would make the king's enemies subject to him by force. He said that he was about to go to dinner, and that he would return afterward to have the cross set up on the summit of the moun- tain.

They replied that they were satisfied, and then forming in battalion and firing the muskets, and the captain having embraced the two kings, we took our leave. When we reached the summit, the captain-general told them that he esteemed highly having sweated for them, for since the cross was there, it could not but be of great use to them. On asking them which port was the best to get food, they replied that there were three, namely, Ceylon, Zubu, and Calaghann, but that Zubu was the largest and the one with most trade.

They offered of their own accord to give us pilots to show us the way. The captain-general thanked them, and determined to go there, for so did his unhappy fate will. After the cross was erected in position, each of us repeated a Pater Noster and an Ave Maria, and adored the cross; and the kings did the same. Then we descended through their cultivated fields, and went to the place where the balanghai was. The captain asked the kings for the pilots for he intended to depart the following morning, and [said] that he would treat them as if they were the kings themselves, and would leave one of us as hostage.

The kings replied that every hour he wished the pilots were at his command, but that night the first king changed his mind, and in the morning when we were about to depart, sent word to the captain-general, asking him for love of him to wait two days until he should have his rice har- vested, and other trifles attended to.

He asked the captain-general to send him some men to help him, so that it might be done sooner ; and said that he in- tended to act as our pilot himself.

Some said to excuse them that they were slightly sick. Our men did nothing on that day, but they worked the next two days. He put his hand in his purse and wished to give him one real for those things, but the native refused it. The captain showed him a ducado but he would not accept that either. They wear a piece of cloth woven from a tree about their privies. They have holes pierced in their ears which are filled with gold.

Those leaves resemble the leaves of the mulberry. They mix it with a little lime, and when they have chewed it thoroughly, they spit it out. All the people in those parts of the world use it, for it is very cooling to the heart, and if they ceased to use it they would die. There are dogs, cats, swine, fowls, goats, rice, ginger, cocoa- nuts, figs [i. It lies in a latitude of nine and two- thirds degrees toward the Arctic Pole, and in a longi- tude of one hundred and sixty-two degrees from the line of demarcation.

It is twenty-five from the Acquada, and is called Mazaua. As it was late we killed one of them, which re- sembled chicken in taste. There are doves, turtle- doves, parrots, and certain black birds as large as domestic chickens, which have a long tail. The last mentioned birds lay eggs as large as the goose, and bury them under the sand, through the great heat of which they hatch out. When the chicks are born, they push up the sand, and come out.

Those eggs are good to eat. There is a distance of twenty leguas from Mazaua to Gatighan. The captain-general had him come into his ship with several of his chiefs at which they were pleased. Thus did we go to Zubu from Gatighan, the dis- tance to Zubu being fifteen leguas. On approaching the city, the captain-general ordered the ships to fling their banners. The sails were lowered and ar- ranged as if for battle, and all the artillery was fired, an action which caused great fear to those people.

The captain sent a foster-son of his as ambassador to the king of Zubo with the interpreter. When they reached the city, they found a vast crowd of peo- ple together with the king, all of whom had been frightened by the mortars.

The interpreter told them 2T0 that that was our custom when entering into such places, as a sign of peace and friendship, and that we had discharged all our mortars to honor the king of the village.

The king and all of his men were reassured, and the king had us asked by his governor what we wanted. The interpreter replied that his master was a captain of the greatest king and prince in the world, and that he was going to discover Malucho; 2T1 but that he had come solely to visit the king because of the good report which he had heard of him from the king of Mazaua, and to buy food with his merchandise.

The king told him that he was welcome [literally: As proof of his statement the king pointed out to the interpreter a merchant from Ciama, who had remained to trade the gold and slaves.

The in- terpreter told the king that, since his master was the captain of so great a king, he did not pay tribute to any seignior in the world, and that if the king wished peace he would have peace, but if war in- stead, war. The Moro related everything to the king, m who said thereupon that he would deliberate with his men, and would answer the captain on the following day.

Then he had re- freshments of many dishes, all made from meat and contained in porcelain platters, besides many jars of wine brought in. After our men had refreshed themselves, they returned and told us everything. The king, accompanied by his chiefs, came to the open square where he had our men sit down near him. He asked the notary whether there were more than one captain in that company, and whether that captain wished him to pay tribute to the emperor his master. The notary replied in the negative, but that the captain wished only to trade with him and with no others.

The king said that he was satisfied, and that if the captain wished to become his friend, he should send him a drop of blood from his right arm, and he himself would do the same [to him] as a sign of the most sincere f riendship.

He saluted the captain-gen- eral in behalf of the king [of Zubu], and said that the king of Zubu was collecting as much food as possible to give to him, and that after dinner he would send one of his nephews and two others of his chief men to make peace.

The captain-general had one of his men armed with his own arms, and had the Moro told that we all fought in that manner. After dinner the king's nephew, who was the prince, came to the ships with the king of Mazaua, the Moro, the governor, the chief constable, and eight chiefs, to make peace with us.

The captain- general was seated in a red velvet chair, the principal men M1 on leather chairs, and the others on mats upon the floor. The captain-general asked them through the interpreter whether it were their custom to speak in secret or in public, and whether that prince and the king of Mazaua had authority to make peace.

The captain- general said many things concerning peace, and that he prayed God to confirm it in heaven. They said that they had never heard any one speak such words, but that they took great pleasure in hearing them. The captain seeing that they listened and answered willingly, began to advance arguments to induce them to accept the faith.

Asking them who would succeed to the seigniory after the death of the king, he was answered that the king had no sons but only daughters, the eldest of whom was the wife of that nephew of his, who therefore was the prince.

The captain replied to them that he could not leave them any men then, but that if they wished to become Christians, our priest would baptize them, and that he would next time bring priests and friars who would instruct them in our faith. They answered that they would first speak to their king, and that then they would become Chris- tians, [whereat] we all wept with great joy. All cried out with one voice that they were not becoming Chris- tians through fear or to please us, but of their own free will.

The captain embraced them weeping, and clasping one of the prince's hands and one of the king's between his own, said to them that, by his faith in God and to his sovereign, the emperor, and by the habit which he wore," 8 he promised them that he would give them perpetual peace with the king of Spagnia. They answered that they promised the same. After the conclusion of the peace, the cap- tain had refreshments served to them. Then the prince and the king [of Mazaua] presented some baskets of rice, swine, goats, and fowls to the cap- tain-general on behalf of their king, and asked him to pardon them, for such things were but little [to give] to one such as he.

The captain gave the prince a white cloth of the finest linen, a red cap, some strings of glass beads, and a gilded glass drinking cup. Those glasses are greatly appreciated in those districts. He did not give any present to the king of Mazaua, for he had already given him a robe of Cambaya, besides other articles.

Then he sent to the king of Zubu through me and one other a yellow and violet silk robe, made in Turkish style, a fine red cap, some strings of glass beads, all in a silver dish, and two gilt drinking cups in our hands. He was fat and short, and tattooed with fire in various designs. From another mat on the ground he was eating turtle eggs which were in two porcelain dishes, and he had four jars full of palm wine in front of him covered with sweet-smelling herbs and arranged with four small reeds in each jar by means of which he drank.

Then the king had us eat some of those eggs and drink through those slender reeds. The others, his men, told him in that place, the words of the captain concerning peace and his exhortation to them to become Chris- tians.

The king wished to have us stay to supper with him, but we told him that we could not. Having taken our leave of him, the prince took us with him to his house, where four young girls were playing [instruments] - one, on a drum like ours, but resting on the ground ; the second was strik- ing two suspended gongs alternately with a stick wrapped somewhat thickly at the end with palm cloth; the third, one large gong in the same manner; and the last, two small gongs held in her hand, by striking one against the other, which gave forth a sweet sound.

They played so harmoniously that one would believe they possessed good musical sense. They were naked except for tree cloth hanging from the waist and reach- ing to the knees. Some were quite naked and had large holes in their ears with a small round piece of wood in the hole, which keeps the hole round and large.

They have long black hair, and wear a short cloth about the head, and are always barefoot. The prince had three quite naked girls dance for us. We took refreshments and then went to the ships. Those gongs are made of brass [metalo] and are manufactured in the regions about the Signio Magno which is called China. They are used in those regions as we use bells and are called aghon. We found the king surrounded by many men, of whom, after the due reverence was made, I asked it.

He replied that he was quite satisfied, and that he wished to adore the cross as did we. The deceased was buried in the square with as much pomp as possible, in order to furnish a good example.

Then we consecrated the place, and in the evening buried another man. We carried a quantity of merchandise ashore which we stored in a house. The king took it under his care as well as four men who were left to trade the goods by wholesale. They have wooden balances, the bar of which has a cord in the middle by which it is held. At one end is a bit of lead, and at the other marks like quarter-lib ras, third-libras, and libras. When they wish to weigh they take the scales which has three wires like ours, and place it above the marks, and so weigh accurately.

Their houses are constructed of wood, and are built of planks and bamboo, raised high from the ground on large logs, and one must enter them by means of ladders.

They have rooms like ours ; and under the house they keep their swine, goats, and fowls. Large sea snails [corniolli], beautiful to the sight, are found there which kill whales. For the whale swallows them alive, and when they are in the whale's body, they come out of their shells and eat the whale's heart. Those people afterward find them alive near the dead whale's heart. Those creatures have black teeth and skin and a white shell, and the flesh is good to eat. They are called laghan? For metals, iron, and other large mer- chandise they gave us gold.

For the other smaller articles they gave us rice, swine, goats, and other food. The captain-gen- eral sent men to tell the king not to be afraid of the pieces that would be discharged in the morn- ing, for it was our custom to discharge them at our greatest feasts without loading with stones. The captain and the king embraced. The captain told the king that the royal banner was not taken ashore except with fifty men armed as were those two, and with fifty musketeers; but so great was his love for him that he had thus brought the banner.

The captain and the king sat down in chairs of red and violet velvet, the chiefs on cushions, and the others on mats. The king replied that he wished to become a Christian, but that some of his chiefs did not wish to obey, because they said that they were as good men as he.

Then our captain had all the chiefs of the king called, and told them that, unless they obeyed the king as their king, he would have them killed, and would give their pos- sessions to the king. The captain told the king that he was going to Spagnia, but that he would return again with so many forces that he would make him the greatest king of those regions, as he had been the first to express a determination to become a Chris- tian. The king, lifting his hands to the sky, thanked the captain, and requested him to let some of his men remain [with him], so that he and his people might be better instructed in the faith.

The captain replied that he would leave two men to satisfy him, but that he would like to take two of the children of the chiefs with him, so that they might learn our language, who afterward on their return would be able to tell the others the wonders [cose'] of Spagnia.

A large cross was set up in the middle of the square. The captain told them that if they wished to become Christians as they had declared on the previous days, that they must burn all their idols and set up a cross in their place. They were to adore that cross daily with clasped hands, and every morning after their [i. The intention that they had already declared, they were to confirm with good works.

The king and all the others wished to confirm it thoroughly. The captain-general told the king that he was clad all in white to demonstrate his sincere love toward them. They replied that they could not respond to his sweet words.

The captain led the king by the hand to the platform while speaking these good words in order to baptize him. Five hundred men were baptized before mass. After the conclusion of mass, the captain invited the king and some of the other chiefs to dinner, but they refused, accompany- ing us, however, to the shore. The ships discharged all the mortars; and embracing, the king and chiefs and the captain took leave of one another. We conducted her to the platform, and she was made to sit down upon a cushion, and the other women near her, until the priest should be ready.

She was shown an image of our Lady, a very beautiful wooden child Jesus, and a cross. There- upon, she was overcome with contrition, and asked for baptism amid her tears. Counting men, women, and chil- dren, we baptized eight hundred souls. In the afternoon,' 18 the king and queen, accompanied by numerous persons, came to the shore. Thereupon, the captain had many trombs of fire and large mortars discharged, by which they were most highly delighted.

That king's name was Raia Humabon. Before that week had gone, all the persons of that island, and some from the other islands, were baptized. We burned one hamlet which was located in a neighboring island, because it refused to obey the king or us. We set up the cross there for those people were heathen. Had they been Moros, we would have erected a column there as a token of greater hardness, for the Moros are much harder to convert than the heathen.

The captain-general went ashore daily during those days to hear mass, and told the king many things regarding the faith. Three girls preceded her with three of her hats in their hands.

A great number of women accompanied her, who were all naked and barefoot, except that they had a small covering of palm-tree cloth before their privies, and a small scarf upon the head, and all with hair flowing free. The queen, having made the due reverence to the altar, seated herself on a silk embroidered cushion. The captain knowing that the queen was very much pleased with the child Jesus, gave it to her, telling her to keep it in place of her idols, for it was in memory ,M of the son of God.

Thanking him heartily she accepted it Before mass one day, the captain-general had the king come clad in his silk robe, and the chief men of the city, [to wit], the king's brother and prince's father, whose name was Bendara; another of the king's brothers, Cadaio; and certain ones called Simiut, Sibuaia, Sisacai, Maghalibe, and many others whom I shall not name in order not to be tedious. Then the captain had the king declare that he would always be obedient and faithful to the king of Spagnia, and the king so swore.

After the conclusion of that the captain gave the king a red velvet chair, telling him that wherever he went he should always have it carried before him by one of his nearest relatives; and he showed him how it ought to be carried. Those are the most beau- tiful ornaments which the kings of those districts can wear. They always go barefoot, and wear a cloth garment that hangs from the waist to the knees. One day the captain-general asked the king and the other people why they did not burn their idols as they had promised when they became Christians; and why they sacrificed so much flesh to them.

They replied that what they were doing was not for them- selves, but for a sick man who had not spoken now for four days, so that the idols might give him health.

He was the prince's brother, and the bravest and wisest man in the island. The captain told them to burn their idols and to believe in Christ, and that if the sick man were baptized, he would quickly re- cover ; and if that did not so happen they could be- head him [i. There- upon, the king replied that he would do it, for he truly believed in Christ.

We made a procession from the square to the house of the sick man with as much pomp as possible. There we found him in such condition that he could neither speak nor move. We baptized him and his two wives, and x girls.

Then the captain had him asked how he felt. He spoke immediately and said that by the grace of our Lord he felt very well. That was a most manifest miracle [that happened] in our times.

When the captain heard him speak, he thanked God fervently. Then he made the sick man drink some almond milk, which he had already had made for him. Afterward he sent him a mattress, a pair of sheets, a coverlet of yellow cloth, and a pillow. Be- fore five days the sick man began to walk. He had an idol that certain old women had concealed in his house burned in the presence of the king and all the people.

The people themselves cried out " Casti glial Castiglial" and destroyed m those shrines. They said that if God would lend them life, they would burn all the idols that they could find, even if they were in the king's house.

Those idols are made of wood, and are hollow, and lack the back parts. Their arms are open and their feet turned up under them with the legs open. They have a large face with four huge tusks like those of the wild boar; and are painted all over. There are many villages in that island. Their names, those of their inhabitants, and of their chiefs are as follows: Near that island of Zubu was an island called Matan, which formed the port where we were anchored. The name of its village was Matan, and its chiefs were Zula and Cilapulapu.

That city which we burned was in that island and was called Bulaia. One bit of cloth of Cam- baia is spread on the ground. Then two very old women come, each of whom has a bamboo trumpet in her hand. When they have stepped upon the cloth they make obeisance to the sun. Then they wrap the cloths about themselves.

One of them puts a kerchief with two horns on her forehead, and takes another kerchief in her hands, and dancing and blowing upon her trumpet, she thereby calls out to the sun. The other takes one of the standards and dances and blows on her trumpet. They dance and call out thus for a little space, saying many things between themselves to the sun. She with the ker- chief takes the other standard, and lets the kerchief drop, and both blowing on their trumpets for a long time, dance about the bound hog.

She with the horns always speaks covertly to the sun, and the other answers her. A cup of wine is presented to her of the horns, and she dancing and repeating certain words, while the other answers her, and making pre- tense four or five times of drinking the wine, sprinkles it upon the heart of the hog.

Then she immediately begins to dance again. A lance is given to the same woman. She shaking it and repeating certain words, while both of them continue to dance, and making motions four or five times of thrusting the lance through the heart of the hog, with a sudden and quick stroke, thrusts it through from one side to the other. The one who has killed the hog, taking in her mouth a lighted torch, which has been lighted throughout that ceremony, extinguishes it m The other one dipping the end of her trumpet in the blood of the hog, goes around marking with blood with her finger first the foreheads of their husbands, and then the others ; but they never came to us.

Then they divest themselves and go to eat the contents of those dishes, and they invite only women [to eat with them]. The hair is removed from the hog by means of fire. Thus no one but old women consecrate the flesh of the hog, and they do not eat it unless it is killed in this way.

The males, large and small, have their penis pierced from one side to the other near the head, with a gold or tin bolt as large as a goose quill. In both ends of the same bolt, some have what resembles a spur, with points upon the ends ; others are like the head of a cart nail. I very often asked many, both old and young, to see their penis, because I could not credit it.

In the middle of the bolt is a hole, through which they urinate. The bolt and the spurs always hold firm. They say that their women wish it so, and that if they did otherwise they would not have communication with them.

Those people make use of that device because they are of a weak nature. They have as many wives as they wish, but one of them is the principal wife. Their viands are half cooked and very salty. They drink fre- quently and copiously from the jars through those small reeds, and one of their meals lasts for five or six hours. The women loved us very much more than their own men. All of the women from the age of six years and upward, have their vaginas [natura] gradually opened because of the men's penises.

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Hospitably received by eight chiefs who visit the ships, they enter into relations with the Borneans. Seven men go as ambassadors to visit the king, and bear presents to him and the chief men.

Here some of the grandeurs of an oriental court are spread be- fore their eyes, which Pigafetta briefly describes. The strangers are graciously given permission to take on fresh supplies of food, water, and wood, and to trade at pleasure.

Later actions of the Borneans cause the men of the ships to fear treachery, and forestalling any action by that people, they attack a number of junks near them, and capture four.

Among the captives is the son of the king of Luzon, who is the chief captain in Borneo, and whom Car- valho allows to escape, without consulting the others, for a large sum of gold. His action in so doing re- acts on himself, for the king refuses to allow two men who were ashore and Carvalho's own son born of a native woman in Brazil to return to the ships, and " PREFACE 23 they are left behind. The Borneans and their junks are described. They use porcelain dishes which are made from a fine white clay that is buried under ground for fifty years in order to refine it, and in- herited from father to son.

Camphor is obtained there, and the island is so large that it can be circum- navigated by a prau only in three months' time. On leaving Borneo, a number of prisoners from the captured junks are kept, among them three wo- men whom Carvalho ostensibly retains as presents for the queen of Spain, but in reality for himself. Happily escaping from the point on which one of the ships has become grounded, and the fear of explosion from a candle which is snuffed into a barrel of powder, the ships anchor at a point of Borneo, where for forty-two days, the men are busied in repairing, calking, and furnishing the vessels.

The journey is resumed back toward Paragua, the governor of a district of that island being captured on the way; with whom, however, they enter into friendly relations. Thence the ships cruise along between Cagayan, Jolo, and Mindanao, capturing a native boat from Maingdanao of the latter island, from the captive occupants of which they learn news of the Moluccas. Pushing on amid stormy weather, they anchor at the island of Sarangani, just south of Mindanao ; and thence proceed in a generally south- erly direction amid many islands until the Moluccas are reached, and they enter the harbor of Tidore on Friday, November 8, , after twenty-seven months, less two days, since their departure from Spain.

He promises them as many cloves as they wish, even offering to go outside his island, contrary to the practice of kings, to provide them the sooner; in return for his services hoping for their aid in his designs for power in the Moluccas, especially against the king of Ternate.

There they learn that Francisco Serrao, the great friend of MagalhSes, has perished some eight months pre- viously from poison administered by the king of Tidore, whom he had visited, because he had aided the king of Ternate against Tidore. This SerrSo, says Pigafetta, was the cause of Magalhaes under- taking his expedition, and he had been in the Moluc- cas for ten years, for so long ago had Portugal dis- covered those islands.

The efforts of the Ternatans to gain the new strangers fail, for they are already pledged to the king of Tidore. On November 12, a house is built ashore and on the thirteenth the mer- chandise is carried there, among it being that cap- tured with the various junks at and near Borneo. The sailors are somewhat careless of their bargains for they are in haste to return to Spain.

The king continues his kindness, and to humor him, as he is a Mahometan, all the swine in the boats are killed. This relation will be concluded in VOL. The Editors December, Our transcript is made from the original document which exists in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan, Italy. This is made by James Alexander Robertson. James of the Sword"], 10 [who] had many times traversed the Ocean Sea in various directions, whence he had ac- quired great praise, I set out from the city of Barsa- lonna, where his Majesty was then residing, bearing many letters in my favor.

I went by ship as far as Malega, where, taking the highroad, I went over- land to Siviglia. Having been there about three full months, waiting for the said fleet to be set in order for the departure, 11 finally, as your most excellent Lordship will learn below, we commenced our voy- age under most happy auspices.

Another light was made by means of a lantern or by means of a piece of wicking made from a rush and called sparto rope " which is well beaten in the water, and then dried in the sun or in the smoke - a most excellent material for such use. They were to answer him so that he might know by that signal whether all of the ships were coming together.

Lo secondo deL piloto ho nochiero. If he showed three lights, they were to lower away the bonnet-sail, which is a part of the sail that is fastened below the mainsail, when the weather is suitable for making better time. It is lowered so that it may be easier to furl the mainsail when it is struck hastily during a sudden squall. If he showed a greater number of lights, or fired a mortar, it was a signal of land or of shoals. When he desired to set the bonnet-sail, he showed three lights.

Three watches were set nightly: All of the men in the ships were divided into three parts: Two columns of that bridge have remained even to this day at the bottom of the water, and when ships sail by there, they need men who know the location of the columns thor- oughly, so that the ships may not strike against them. They must also be passed when the river is highest with the tide ; as must also many other villages along the river, which has not sufficient depth [of itself] for ships that are laden and which are not very large to pass.

Then the ships reached another village called Coria, and passed by many other villages along the river, until they came to a castle of the duke of Medina Cidonia, called San Lucar, which is a port by which to enter the Ocean Sea.

Before the departure, the captain-general wished all the men to confess, and would not allow any " woman to sail in the fleet for the best of considerations. We left that village, by name San Luchar, on Tuesday, September xx of the same year, and took a southwest course. Then we went to a port of the same island called Monte Rosso " to get pitch," staying [there] two days. Your most illustrious Lordship must know that there is a particular one of the islands of the Great Canaria, where one can not find a single drop of water which gushes up [from a spring] ; " but that at noontide a cloud descends from the sky and en- circles a large tree which grows in the said island, the leaves and branches of which distil a quantity of water.

At the foot of the said tree runs a trench which resembles a spring, where all the water falls, and from which the people living there, and the animals, both domestic and wild, fully satisfy them- selves daily with this water and no other. Quando pioueua nd era vento. When the sun shone, it was calm. Cer- tain large fishes called tiburoni [i.

They have terrible teeth, and whenever they find men in the sea they devour them. We caught many of them with iron hooks, 44 although they are not good to eat unless they are small, and even then they are not very good.

During those storms the holy body, that is to say St. When that blessed light was about to leave us, so dazzling was the brightness that it cast into our eyes, that we all remained for more than an eighth of an hour 4i blinded and calling for mercy. And truly when we thought that we were dead men, the sea suddenly grew calm. The latter bird has no feet, and always lives in the sea. I also saw many flying fish, and many others collected together, so that they resem- bled an island.

It is the land extending from the cape of Santo Augustino, which lies in 8 degrees of the same pole. For one fishhook or one knife, those people gave 5 or 6 chickens; for one comb, a brace of geese; for one mirror or one pair of scissors, as many fish as would be sufficient for x men ; for a bell or one leather lace, one basketful of potatoes [batate].

These potatoes resemble chest- nuts in taste, and are as long as turnips. We entered that port on St. The people of that land are not Christians, and have no manner of wor- ship. They live according to the dictates of nature, 19 and reach an age of one hundred and twenty-five and one hundred and forty years. They live in certain long houses which they call boii" and sleep in cotton hammocks called amache, which are fastened in those houses by each end to large beams.

A fire is built on the ground under those hammocks. In each one of those boiiy there are one hundred men with their wives and children, 91 and they make a great racket.

They have boats called canoes made of one single huge tree, 99 hollowed out by the use of stone hatchets. Those people employ stones as we do iron, as they have no iron. Thirty or forty men occupy one of those boats. They paddle with blades like the shovels of a furnace, and thus, black, naked, and shaven, they resemble, when paddling, the inhabit- ants of the Stygian marsh.

They eat the human flesh of their enemies, not because it is good, but be- cause it is a certain established custom. That cus- tom, which is mutual, was begun by an old woman, 94 who had but one son who was killed by his enemies.

She seeing him, and remembering her son, ran upon him like an infuriated bitch, and bit him on one shoulder. Shortly afterward he escaped to his own people, whom he told that they had tried to eat him, showing them [in proof] the marks on his shoulder.

Whom- ever the latter captured afterward at any time from the former they ate, and the former did the same to the latter, so that such a custom has sprung up in this way.

They do not eat the bodies all at once, but every one cuts off a piece, and carries it to his house, where he smokes it. Then every week," he cuts off a small bit, which he eats thus smoked with his other food to remind him of his enemies.

The above was told me by the pilot, Johane Carnagio," who came with us, and who had lived in that land for four years. Those people paint the whole body and the face in a wonderful manner with fire in various fashions, as do the women also. The men are [are: They clothe themselves in a dress made of parrot feathers, with large round arrangements at their buttocks made from the largest feathers, and it is a ridiculous sight. Those people are not entirely black, but of a dark brown color.

They keep the privies uncovered, and the body is without hair, 63 while both men and women always go naked. The women will not shame their husbands under any considerations whatever, and as was told us, refuse to consent to their husbands by day, but only by night.

The women carry their children hanging in a cotton net from their necks. I omit other particulars, in order not to be tedious. Mass was said twice on shore, during which those people remained on their knees with so great contrition and with clasped hands raised aloft, that it was an exceeding great pleasure w to behold them. They built us a house as they thought that we were going to stay with them for some time, and at our departure they cut a great quantity of brazil-wood [verzifi] to give us.

At first those people thought that the small boats were the children of the ships, and that the latter gave birth to them when they were lowered into the sea from the ships, and when they were lying so alongside the ships as is the custom , they believed that the ships were nursing them.

While there and waiting, she cast her eyes upon the master's room, and saw a nail longer than one's finger. Picking it up very delightedly and neatly, she thrust it through the lips of her vagina [natura], and bending down low immediately de- parted, die captain-general and I having seen that action. One of them, in stature almost a giant, came to the flag- ship in order to assure [the safety of] the others his friends.

While he was in the ship, the others carried away their pos- sessions from the place where they were living into the interior, for fear of us. Seeing that, we landed one hundred men in order to have speech and con- verse with them, or to capture one of them by force. They fled, and in fleeing they took so large a step that we although running could not gain on their steps. There are seven islands in that river, in the largest of which precious gems are found. That place is called the cape of Santa Maria, and it was formerly thought that one passed thence to the sea of Sur, that is to say the South Sea, but nothing fur- ther was ever discovered.

Now the name is not [given to] a cape, but [to] a river, with a mouth 17 leguas in width. Those geese are black and have all their feathers alike both on body and wings. They do not fly, and live on fish. They were so fat that it was not necessary to pluck them but to skin them.

Their beak is like that of a crow. They have no legs but only feet with small nails attached to the body, which re- semble our hands, and between their fingers the same kind of skin as the geese.

They would be very fierce if they could run. They swim, and live on fish. At that place the ships suffered a very great storm, during which the three holy bodies appeared to us many times, that is to say, St. Nicho- las, and St.

Clara, whereupon the storm quickly ceased. Leaving that place, we finally reached 49 and one-half degrees toward the Antarctic Pole. As it was winter, the ships entered a safe port to winter. One day we suddenly saw a naked man of giant stature on the shore of the port, dancing, 87 sing- ing, and throwing dust on his head.

The captain- general sent one of our men to the giant so that he might perform the same actions as a sign of peace. Having done that, the man led the giant to an islet into the presence of the captain-general. When the giant was in the captain-general's and our presence, he marveled greatly, 88 and made signs with one finger raised upward, believing that we had come from the sky.

He was so tall that we reached only to his waist, and he was well proportioned. His face was large and painted red all over, while about his eyes he was painted yellow; and he had two hearts painted on the middle of his cheeks.

His scanty hair was painted white. Those points were fashioned by means of another 'stone. When he saw his face, he was greatly terrified, and jumped back throwing three or four 04 of our men to the ground.

After that he was given some bells, a mirror, a comb, and certain Pater Nosters. The captain-general sent him ashore with 4 armed men. When one of his companions, who would never come to the ships, saw him coming with our men, he ran to the place where the others were, who came [down to the shore] all naked one after the other. When our men reached them, they began to dance and to sing, lifting one finger to the sky.

They showed our men some white powder made from the roots of an herb, which they kept in earthen pots, and which they ate because they had nothing else. Our men made signs inviting them to the ships, and that they would help them carry their possessions. Thereupon, those men quickly took only their bows, while their women laden like asses carried everything. When we saw them we were greatly surprised.

Their breasts are one-half braza long, and they are painted and clothed like their husbands, except that before their privies [natura] they have a small skin which covers them. They led four of those young animals, fastened with thongs like a halter.

When those people wish to catch some of those animals, they tie one of these young ones to a thornbush. Thereupon, the large ones come to play with the little ones; and those people kill them with their arrows from their place of concealment. Our men led eighteen of those people, counting men and women, to the ships, and they were distributed on the two sides of the port so that they might catch some of the said animals.

He had a bow and arrows in his hand. When the captain-general was informed of it, he ordered him to be brought in the small boat. He was taken to that island in the port where our men had built a house for the smiths " and for the storage of some things from the ships. That man was even taller and better built than the others and as tractable and amiable. Jumping up and down, he danced, and when he danced, at every leap, his feet sank a palmo into the earth.

He re- mained with us for a considerable number of days, so long that we baptized him, calling him Johanni. He left us very joyous and happy. The following day he brought one of those large animals to the captain-general, in return for which many things were given to him, so that he might bring some more to us ; but we did not see him again. We thought that his companions had killed him because he had conversed with us. A fortnight later we saw four of those giants with- out their arms for they had hidden them in certain bushes as the two whom we captured showed us.

Each one was painted differently. The captain-gen- eral kept two of them -the youngest and best pro- portioned -by means of a very cunning trick, in order to take them to Spagnia. He gave them many knives, scissors, mirrors, bells, and glass beads; and those two having their hands filled with the said articles, the captain-general had two pairs of iron manacles brought, such as are fastened on the feet.

See- ing that they were loth to leave those manacles be- hind, the captain made them a sign that he would put them on their feet, and that they could carry them away.

They nodded assent with the head. Immediately, the captain had the manacles put on both of them at the same time. When our men were driving home the cross bolt, the giants began to sus- pect something, but the captain assuring them, how- ever, they stood still. When they saw later that they were tricked, they raged like bulls, calling loudly for Setebos 1M to aid them.

With difficulty could we bind the hands of the other two, whom we sent ashore with nine of our men, in order that the giants might guide them to the place where the wife of one of the two whom we had captured was; for the latter expressed his great grief at leaving her by signs so that we understood [that he meant] her. While they were on their way, one of the giants freed his hands, and took to his heels with such swiftness that our men lost sight of him.

He went to the place where his associates were, but he did not find [there] one of his companions, who had remained behind with the women, and who had gone hunting. He immediately went in search of the latter, and told him all that had happened. The other two giants came, and seeing their companion wounded, hesi- tated, but said nothing then.

But with the dawn, they spoke 10T to the women, [whereupon] they imme- diately ran away and the smaller ones ran faster than the taller , leaving all their possessions behind them. Two of them turned aside to shoot their ar- rows at our men. The other was leading away those small animals of theirs in order to hunt.

When the giants saw that, they ran away quickly. Our men had muskets and crossbows, but they could never hit any of the giants, [for] when the latter fought, they never stood still, but leaped hither and thither.

Our men buried their dead com- panion, and burned all the possessions left behind by the giants. Of a truth those giants run swifter than horses and are exceedingly jealous of their wives. When they have a headache, they cut themselves across the fore- head; and they do the same on the arms or on the legs and in any part of the body, letting a quantity of blood. One of those whom we had captured, and whom we kept in our ship, said that the blood re- fused to stay there [i.

They bind their privies close to their bodies because of the exceeding great cold. They notice that one of those demons is much taller than the others, and he cries out and rejoices more.

They call the larger demon Setebos, and the others Cheleulle. That giant also told us by signs that he had seen the demons with two horns on their heads, and long hair which hung to the feet belching forth fire from mouth and buttocks.

The captain-general called those people Patagoni. They live on raw flesh and on a sweet root which they call chapae. They also ate rats without skinning them. In that port which we called the port of Santo Julianno, we remained about five months. In order that your most illustrious Lordship may know some of them, it hap- pened that as soon as we had entered the port, the captains of the other four ships plotted treason in order that they might kill the captain-general.

The overseer of the men having been quartered, the treasurer was killed by dagger blows, for the treason was discovered. Some days after that, Gaspar de Casada, was banished with a priest in that land of Patagonia. The captain-gen- eral did not wish to have him killed, because the emperor, Don Carlo, had appointed him captain. All the men were saved as by a miracle, not even getting wet. Two of them came to the ships after suffering great hardships, and reported the whole occurrence to us.

Consequently, the captain-general sent some men with bags full of biscuits [sufficient to last] for two months. It was necessary for us to carry them the food, for daily pieces of the ship [that was wrecked] were found. The way thither was long, [being] 24 leguas, or one hundred millas, and the path was very rough and full of thorns. The men were 4 days on the road, sleeping at night in the bushes. They found no drinking water, but only ice, which caused them the greatest hardship.

They have pearls, although small ones in the middle, but could not be eaten. We erected a cross on the top of the highest summit there, as a sign in that land that it belonged to the king of Spagnia; and we called that summit Monte de Christo [i. There the ships almost per- ished because of the furious winds ; but God and the holy bodies aided them.

We stayed about two months in that river in order to supply the ships with water, wood, and fish, [the latter being] one braccio in length and more, and covered with scales. They were very good although small. That strait is one hundred and ten leguas or millas long, and it is one-half legua broad, more or less. There it was impossible to find bottom [for anchor- ing], but [it was necessary to fasten] the moorings m on land 25 or 30 brazas away.

Had it not been for the captain-general, we would not have found that strait, for we all thought and said that it was closed on all sides. The other two ships suffered a headwind and could not double a cape m formed by the bay almost at its end, as they were trying to return to join us ; so that they thought that they would have to run aground.

But on ap- proaching the end of the bay, and thinking that they were lost, they saw a small opening which did not [exceed: Seeing that it was not a sharp turn, but a strait with land, they proceeded farther, and found a bay. We thought that they had been wrecked, first, by reason of the violent storm, and second, because two days had passed and they had hot appeared, and also because of certain [signals with] smoke made by two of their men who had been sent ashore to advise us.

When they neared us in this manner, they sud- denly discharged a number of mortars, and burst into cheers. The ship " Sancto Anthonio " would not await the " Concep- tione," because it intended to flee and return to Spagnia - which it did.

The pilot of that ship was one Stefan Gomes, and he hated the captain-gen- eral exceedingly, because before that fleet was fitted out, the emperor had ordered that he be given some caravels with which to discover lands, but his Maj- esty did not give them to him because of the coming of the captain-general.

On that account he con- spired with certain Spaniards, and next night they captured the captain of their ship, a cousin "' of the captain-general, one Alvaro de Meschita, whom they wounded and put in irons, and in this condition took to Spagnia.

The other giant whom we had captured was in that ship, but he died when the heat came on. The " Conceptione," as it could not follow that ship, waited for it, sailing about hither and thither. The " Sancto Anthonio " turned back at night and fled along the same [port: Finding, however, the same [port: The men returned within three days, and reported that they had seen the cape and the open sea.

We turned back to look for the two ships, but we found only the " Conceptione. We sought it in all parts of the strait, as far as that opening whence it had fled, and the captain-general sent the ship " Victoria " back to the entrance of the strait to ascertain whether the ship was there. Orders were given them, if they did not find it, to plant a banner on the summit of some small hill with a letter in an earthen pot buried in the earth near the banner, so that if the banner were seen the letter might be found, and the ship might learn the course that we were sailing.

For this was the arrangement made between us in case that we went astray one from the other. The captain-general waited for the ship with his other ship near he river of Isleo, and he had a cross set up in an islet near that river, which flowed between high mountains covered with snow and emptied into the sea near the river of Sardine. There in that latitude, during the summer season, there is no night, or if there is any night it is but short, and so in the winter with the day.

In order that your most illustrious Lordship may believe it, when we were in that strait, the nights were only three hours long, and it was then the month of October, 1 " The land on the left-hand side of that strait turned toward the southeast 1 " and was low. We called that strait the strait of Patagonia. We ate of it for many days as we had noth- ing else. I believe that there is not a more beautiful or better strait in the world than that one. The fish [that hunt] are of three sorts, and are one braza and more in length, and are called dorado, albicore, and bonito.

When the above three kinds [of fish] find any of those flying fish, the latter immediately leap from the water and fly as long as their wings are wet- more than a cross- bow's flight. While they are flying, the others run along back of them under the water following the shadow of the flying fish. The latter have no sooner fallen into the water than the others immediately seize and eat them.

It is in fine a very amusing thing to watch. Once I made the sign of the cross, and, showing it to him, kissed it. He immediately cried out " Setebos," and made me a sign that if I made the sign of the cross again, Setebos would enter into my body and cause it to burst.

When that giant was sick, he asked for the cross, and embracing it and kissing it many times, desired to become a Christian before his death. We called him Paulo.

When those people wish to make a fire, they rub a sharp- ened piece of wood against another piece until the fire catches in the pith of a certain tree, which is placed between those two sticks. We ate biscuit, which was no longer biscuit, but powder of biscuits swarming with worms, for they had eaten the good. It stank strongly of the urine of rats. We also ate some ox hides that covered the top of the mainyard to prevent the yard from chafing the shrouds, and which had become exceedingly hard because of the sun, rain, and wind.

Rats were sold for one-half ducado apiece, and even then we could not get them. The gums of both the lower and upper teeth of some of our men swelled, so that they could not eat under any circumstances and therefore died. Twenty-five or thirty men fell sick [during that time], in the arms, legs, or in another place, so that but few re- mained well.

However, I, by the grace of God, suffered no sickness. We sailed about four thou- sand leguas during those three months and twenty days through an open stretch in that Pacific Sea. They are two hundred leguas apart. We found no anchorage, [but] near them saw many sharks. Daily we made runs of fifty, sixty, or sev- enty leguas at the catena or at the stern. Of a verity I believe no such voyage will ever be made [again]. When we left that strait, if we had sailed con- tinuously westward we would have circumnavigated the world without finding other land than the cape of the xi thousand Virgins.

Both of those capes lie in a latitude of exactly fifty-two degrees toward the Antarctic Pole. Many small stars clustered together are seen, which have the appearance of two clouds of mist. There is but little distance between them, and they arc somewhat dim. In the midst of them are two large and not very luminous stars, which move only slight- ly. Those two stars are the Antarctic Pole. Our loadstone, although it moved hither and thither, al- ways pointed toward its own Arctic Pole, although it did not have so much strength as on its own side.

And on that account when we were in that open expanse, the captain-general, asking all the pilots whether they were always sailing forward in the course which we had laid down on the maps, all re- plied: When we were in the midst of that open expanse, we saw a cross with five extremely bright stars straight toward the west, those stars being exactly placed with regard to one another. The line of demarcation is thirty degrees from the meridian, and the meridian is three degrees eastward from Capo Verde.

That cape with the pardon of cosmographers, for they have not seen it , is not found where it is imagined to be, but to the north in twelve degrees or there- abouts. The captain-general wished to stop at the large island and get some fresh food, but he was unable to do so because the inhabitants of that island entered the ships and stole whatever they could lay their hands on, so that we could not pro- tect ourselves.

The men were about to strike the sails so that we could go ashore, but the natives very deftly stole from us the small boat that was fas- tened to the poop of the flagship.

Thereupon, the captain-general in wrath went ashore with forty armed men, who burned some forty or fifty houses together with many boats, and killed seven men. Before we landed, some of our sick men begged us if we should kill any man or woman to bring the entrails to them, as they would recover immediately.

Others who were wounded in the breast did the same, which moved us to great compassion. Those people seeing us departing fol- lowed us with more than one hundred m boats for more than one legua.

They approached the ships showing us fish, feigning that they would give them to us ; but then threw stones at us and fled. And al- though the ships were under full sail, they passed between them and the small boats [fastened astern], very adroitly in those small boats of theirs.

We saw some women in their boats who were crying out and tearing their hair, for love, I believe, of those whom we had killed. They wear small palm- leaf hats, as do the Albanians. They are as tall as we, and well built. They have no worship. They are tawny, but are born white. Their teeth are red and black, for they think that is most beautiful.

The women go naked except that they wear a narrow strip of bark as thin as paper, which grows between the tree and the bark of the palm, before their privies.

They are goodlooking and delicately formed, and lighter complexioned than the men ; and wear their hair which is exceedingly black, loose and hanging quite down to the ground. They lif anoint the body and the hair with cocoanut and beneseed oil. Their houses are all built of wood covered with planks and thatched with leaves of the fig-tree [i. The rooms and the beds are all furnished with the most beautiful palm- leaf mats. They use no weapons, except a kind of a spear pointed with a fishbone at the end.

Those people are poor, but ingenious and very thiev- ish, on account of which we called those three islands the islands of Ladroni [i. At the side opposite the sail, they have a large piece of wood pointed at the top, with poles laid across it and rest- ing on the water, in order that the boats may sail more safely.

The sail is made from palmleaves sewn together and is shaped like a lateen sail. For rud- ders they use a certain blade resembling a hearth shovel which have a piece of wood at the end.

They can change stern and bow at will [literally: The following day, the cap- tain-general desired to land on another island which was uninhabited and lay to the right of the above- mentioned island, in order to be more secure, and to get water and have some rest.

He had two tents set up on the shore for the sick and had a sow killed for them. On Monday afternoon, March 18, we saw a boat coming toward us with nine men in it. Therefore, the captain-general ordered that no one should move or say a word without his permission. When those men reached the shore, their chief went immediately to the captain-general, giving signs of joy because of our arrival. Five of the most ornately adorned of them remained with us, while the rest went to get some others who were fishing, and so they all came.

They get wine in the following manner. That liquor is sweet but somewhat tart, and [is gathered] in canes [of bamboo] as thick as the leg and thicker. They fasten the bamboo to the tree at evening for the morning, and in the morn- ing for the evening. That palm bears a fruit, name- ly, the cocoanut, which is as large as the head or thereabouts.

Its outside husk is green and thicker than two fingers. Certain filaments are found in that husk, whence is made cord for binding together their boats. Under that husk there is a hard shell, much thicker than the shell of the walnut, which they burn and make therefrom a powder that is use- ful to them.

It could be dried and made into bread. There is a clear, sweet water in the middle of that marrowy substance which is very refreshing. When that water stands for a while after having been collected, it congeals and becomes like an apple. When the natives wish to make oil, they take that cocoanut, and allow the marrowy substance and the water to putrefy.

Then they boil it and it becomes oil like butter. When they wish to make vinegar, they allow only the water to putrefy, and then place it in the sun, and a vinegar results like [that made from] white wine. We scraped that marrowy substance and then mixed the scrapings with its own water which we strained through a cloth, and so obtained milk like goat's milk.

Those palms resemble date-palms, but al- though not smooth they are less knotty than the latter. A family of x persons can be supported on two trees, by utilizing them week about for the wine; for if they did otherwise, the trees would dry up. They last a century. They told us many things, their names and those of some of the islands that could be seen from that place.

Their own island was called Zuluan and it is not very large. He had some mortars fired for them, whereat they exhibited great fear, and tried to jump out of the ship.

When they were about to retire they took their leave very gracefully and neatly, saying that they would return according to their promise.

The island where we were is called Humunu ; but inasmuch as we found two springs there of the clearest water, we called it Acquada da li buoni Segnialli [i. There are also many palms, some of them good and others bad.

There are many islands in that district, and therefore we called them the archipelago of San Lazaro, as they were discovered on the Sabbath of St. They exhibited great signs of pleasure at see- ing us. Their seignior was an old man who was painted [i. He wore two gold earrings [schione] in his ears, and the others many gold armlets on their arms and kerchiefs about their heads. We stayed there one week, and during that time our captain went ashore daily to visit the sick, and m every morn- ing gave them cocoanut water from his own hand, which comforted them greatly.

There are people living near that island who have holes in their ears so large that they can pass their arms through them. Those people are caphri, that is to say, heathen. They go naked, with a cloth woven from the bark of a tree about their privies, except some of the chiefs who wear cotton cloth embroidered with silk at the ends by means of a needle.

They are dark, fat, and painted. On the afternoon of holy Monday, the day of our Lady, March twenty-five, while we were on the point of weighing anchor, I went to the side of the ship to fish, and putting my feet upon a yard leading down into the storeroom, they slipped, for it was rainy, and consequently I fell into the sea, so that no one saw me.

When I was all but under, my left hand hap- pened to catch hold of the clew-garnet of the main- sail, which was dangling [ascosa] in the water. I held on tightly, and began to cry out so lustily that I was rescued by the small boat. I was aided, not, I believe, indeed, through my merits, but through the mercy of that font of charity [i. On Thursday morning, March twenty-eight, as we had seen a fire on an island the night before, we anchored near it. They immediately understood him, came alongside the ship, unwilling to enter but taking a position at some little distance.

About two hours later we saw two balanghai coming. They are large boats and are so called [by those people]. They were full of men, and their king was in the larger of them, being seated under an awning of mats. When the king came near the flagship, the slave spoke to him.

The king understood him, for in those districts the kings know more languages than the other people. He ordered some of his men to enter the ships, but he always remained in his balanghai, at some little dis- tance from the ship until his own men returned; and as soon as they returned he departed. The captain- general showed great honor to the men who entered the ship, and gave them some presents, for which the king wished before his departure to give the cap- tain a large bar m of gold and a basketful of ginger.

The latter, however, thanked the king heartily but would not accept it In the afternoon we went in the ships [and anchored] near the dwellings of the king. Next day, holy Friday, the captain-general sent his slave, who acted as our interpreter, ashore in a small boat to ask the king if he had any food to have it carried to the ships ; m and to say that they would be well satisfied with us, for he [and his men] had come to the island as friends and not as enemies.

The captain-gen- eral gave the king a garment of red and yellow cloth made in the Turkish fashion, and a fine red cap; and to the others the king's men , to some knives and to others mirrors. The king replied that he also wished to enter the same rela- tions with the captain-general.

Then the captain showed him cloth of various colors, linen, coral [ornaments], and many other articles of merchan- dise, and all the artillery, some of which he had dis- charged for him, whereat the natives were greatly frightened. Then the captain-general had a man armed as a soldier," 6 and placed him in the midst of three men armed with swords and daggers, who struck him on all parts of the body.

Thereby was the king rendered almost speechless. The captain- general told him through the slave that one of those armed men was worth one hundred of his own men. The king answered that that was a fact. The cap- tain-general said that he had two hundred men in each ship who were armed in that manner.

Lastly, he told the king that he would like, if it were pleasing to him, to send two of his men with him so that he might show them some of his things. The king re- plied that he was agreeable, and I went in company with one of the other men.

We did the same toward him" 1 as did all the others. The king took me by the hand; one of his chiefs took my companion: We sat down upon the stern of that balanghai, constantly conversing with signs. The king's men stood about us in a circle with swords, daggers, spears, and bucklers.

At every mouthful, we drank a cup of wine. The wine that was left [in the cup] at any time, al- though that happened but rarely, was put into a jar by itself. The king's cup was always kept covered and no one else drank from it but he and I.

Before the king took the cup to drink, he raised his clasped hands toward the sky, and then toward me; and when he was about to drink, he extended the fist of his left hand toward me at first I thought that he was about to strike me and then drank. I did the same toward the king. They all make those signs one toward another when they drink. We ate with such ceremonies and with other signs of friendship. I ate meat on holy Friday, for I could not help my- self.

Before the supper hour I gave the king many things which I had brought. I wrote down the names of many things in their language. When the king and the others saw me writing, and when I told them their words, they were all astonished. Two large porcelain dishes were brought in, one full of rice and the other of pork with its gravy.

After a half-hour a platter of roast fish cut in pieces was brought in, and ginger freshly gathered, and wine. The king's eldest son, who was the prince, came over to us, whereupon the king told him to sit down near us, and he accordingly did so. Then two platters were brought in one with fish and its sauce, and the other with rice , so that we might eat with the prince.

My companion became intoxicated as a consequence of so much drinking and eating. The king made us a sign that he was going to go to sleep. He left the prince with us, and we slept with the latter on a bamboo mat with pillows made of leaves.

When day dawned the king came and took me by the hand, and in that manner we went to where we had had supper, in order to partake of refreshments, but the boat came to get us. Before we left, the king kissed our hands with great joy, and we his. One of his brothers, the king of another island, and three men came with us.

The captain-general kept him to dine with us, and gave him many things. His hair was exceed- ingly black y and hung to his shoulders. He had a covering of silk on his head, and wore two large golden earrings fastened in his ears.

He wore a cotton cloth all embroidered with silk, which cov- ered him from the waist to the knees. At his side hung a dagger, the haft of which was somewhat long and all of gold, and its scabbard of carved wood.

He had three spots of gold on every tooth, and his teeth appeared as if bound with gold. He was tawny and painted [i. That island of his was called Butuan and Calagan. The name of the first king is Raia Colambu, and the second Raia Siaui. Therefore the king sent us two swine that he had had killed. When the hour for mass arrived, we landed with about fifty men, without our body armor, but carry- ing our other arms, and dressed in our best clothes. We went in march- ing order to the place consecrated, which was not far from the shore.

Before the commencement of mass, the captain sprinkled the entire bodies of the two kings with musk water. The kings went forward to kiss the cross as we did, but they did not offer the sacrifice. The ships fired all their artillery at once when the body of Christ was elevated, the signal having been given from the shore with muskets.

After the conclusion of mass, some of our men took communion. Then he had a cross carried in and the nails and a crown, to which immediate reverence was made. If any of their men were captured, they would be set free imme- diately on that sign being shown. It was necessary to set that cross on the summit of the highest moun- tain, so that on seeing it every morning, they might adore it; and if they did that, neither thunder, light- ning, nor storms would harm them in the least.

The captain-general also had them asked whether they were Moros or heathen, or what was their belief. They replied that they worshiped nothing, but that they raised their clasped hands and their face to the sky; and that they called their god " Abba.

The interpreter asked the king why there was so little to eat there. The lat- ter replied that he did not live in that place except when he went hunting and to see his brother, but that he lived in another island where all his family were. The captain-general had him asked to de- clare whether he had any enemies, so that he might go with his ships to destroy them and to render them obedient to him.

The captain told him that if God would again allow him to return to those districts, he would bring so many men that he would make the king's enemies subject to him by force. He said that he was about to go to dinner, and that he would return afterward to have the cross set up on the summit of the moun- tain. They replied that they were satisfied, and then forming in battalion and firing the muskets, and the captain having embraced the two kings, we took our leave.

When we reached the summit, the captain-general told them that he esteemed highly having sweated for them, for since the cross was there, it could not but be of great use to them. On asking them which port was the best to get food, they replied that there were three, namely, Ceylon, Zubu, and Calaghann, but that Zubu was the largest and the one with most trade.

They offered of their own accord to give us pilots to show us the way. The captain-general thanked them, and determined to go there, for so did his unhappy fate will. After the cross was erected in position, each of us repeated a Pater Noster and an Ave Maria, and adored the cross; and the kings did the same.

Then we descended through their cultivated fields, and went to the place where the balanghai was. The captain asked the kings for the pilots for he intended to depart the following morning, and [said] that he would treat them as if they were the kings themselves, and would leave one of us as hostage. The kings replied that every hour he wished the pilots were at his command, but that night the first king changed his mind, and in the morning when we were about to depart, sent word to the captain-general, asking him for love of him to wait two days until he should have his rice har- vested, and other trifles attended to.

He asked the captain-general to send him some men to help him, so that it might be done sooner ; and said that he in- tended to act as our pilot himself. Some said to excuse them that they were slightly sick. Our men did nothing on that day, but they worked the next two days. He put his hand in his purse and wished to give him one real for those things, but the native refused it.

The captain showed him a ducado but he would not accept that either. They wear a piece of cloth woven from a tree about their privies. They have holes pierced in their ears which are filled with gold.

Those leaves resemble the leaves of the mulberry. They mix it with a little lime, and when they have chewed it thoroughly, they spit it out. All the people in those parts of the world use it, for it is very cooling to the heart, and if they ceased to use it they would die.

There are dogs, cats, swine, fowls, goats, rice, ginger, cocoa- nuts, figs [i. It lies in a latitude of nine and two- thirds degrees toward the Arctic Pole, and in a longi- tude of one hundred and sixty-two degrees from the line of demarcation. It is twenty-five from the Acquada, and is called Mazaua. As it was late we killed one of them, which re- sembled chicken in taste. There are doves, turtle- doves, parrots, and certain black birds as large as domestic chickens, which have a long tail.

The last mentioned birds lay eggs as large as the goose, and bury them under the sand, through the great heat of which they hatch out. When the chicks are born, they push up the sand, and come out. Those eggs are good to eat. There is a distance of twenty leguas from Mazaua to Gatighan. The captain-general had him come into his ship with several of his chiefs at which they were pleased.

Thus did we go to Zubu from Gatighan, the dis- tance to Zubu being fifteen leguas. On approaching the city, the captain-general ordered the ships to fling their banners. The sails were lowered and ar- ranged as if for battle, and all the artillery was fired, an action which caused great fear to those people. Lombardei Lurate Caccivio cummings pornostar 0 donne nude gay. The castle and the bridge across the Mayenne Francia Tourism Yt: Fontana Seno, figa 0. Giovani uomini molto sexy si scambiano donne single e coppie dalla mentalità molto aperta.

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Le Chat à neuf queues de Dario Argento Gli occhi.

It lies in a latitude of nine and two- thirds degrees toward the Arctic Pole, and in a longi- tude of one hundred and sixty-two degrees from the line of demarcation. After dinner the king's nephew, who was the prince, came to the ships with the king of Mazaua, the Moro, the governor, the chief constable, and eight chiefs, to make peace with us. We called that strait the strait of Patagonia. They are tawny, but are born white. They have blowpipes and small quivers at their side, full of arrows and a poisonous herb. Some men were playing on musical instruments [cinphonie] and drums.

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